In Celebration of Canadian Ag Day

I have said this a few times before, but I’m sorry my writing hasn’t been as dedicated as I have meant for it to be. I have a sizable pile of things I want to knit and books I want to read and they keep claiming my spare time and my perfectionist writing style refuses post any writing that’s half-baked. I have a lot of posts in my drafts that I’m just not yet satisfied with to share with you, but I promise, they’re coming.

That said, I’ve got something worth writing (briefly) about.

Tomorrow, February 13th, is Canada’s Agriculture Day, a day of celebration of all the food we can grow in Canada.

Spearheaded by the folks over at Agriculture More Than Ever, it’s meant to acknowledge how much food we can produce safely and to give the average non-agriculture person a chance to see how much goes on in agriculture and hopefully get to know the people behind their food.

It’s a known fact that I love Canadian food (I’m drinking a hard cider from the Okanagan Valley in British Colombia and snacking on some Canadian cheddar on crackers as I write this) and try to buy Canadian food as much as I can. I like buying food and knowing that there is a chance that it is coming from the farms of my friends and their families, I like knowing how our food system works and that there’s stop-gaps in place to ensure that it’s safe, healthy and affordable.

If you want to get involved, there are events running straight across the country, and many are registered at for you to find something near you.  If, like me, you’re tired of the cold and don’t want to leave the house and prefer sitting at home in your pajamas, shoveling pasta into your mouth-hole (this got very personal) but you still want to participate you can check out the hashtag #CdnAgDay on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.  You can also sign up for Ag More Than Ever’s Thunderclap, where you register your Twitter or Facebook account and it automatically tweets from your account a preset message at a designated time in an attempt to make #CdnAgDay a trending topic in Canada.

It’s only been a little over a year that I have been actively working in agriculture and it has been a bigger adventure than I ever could have hoped for. I’ve been consistently welcomed with open arms and I’ve had the good fortune of meeting some of the hardest working, most ambitious, innovative, and compassionate people. These interesting people are both people I have met through work and people I have met through social media (looking at you, #AgTwitter ). The important thing I want everyone to get from this post (and everything I post), is that in Canada, and many developed countries around the world, your food is safe, healthy, increasingly accessible, and generally produced by some pretty cool people. I think that’s something worth getting excited about.

Happy #CdnAgDay!


#LoveONTFood for Ontario Agriculture Week

Right now, it’s Ontario Agriculture Week in my home province of Ontario.  Running from October 2nd to 8th 2017, it’s a week long celebration put on by Foodland Ontario to acknowledge all of the great food we are able to grow across the province. Ontario is home to over 50,000 farms growing 200 different types of food so to help celebrate, I decided to pull together a list of my top 10 favourite Ontario Agriculture facts. (Why 10 facts you ask? Well I asked my partner’s younger brother to give me a number between 8 and 20 and he said 10, so here we are)

  1. Ontario is an agriculture superstar in Canada: The province has a little more than half of the highest quality farmland in the country and brings in one quarter of all the farm revenue in Canada.
  2. The field is hiring: In a recent survey commissioned by the Ontario Agriculture College at the University of Guelph, it was found that there’s four jobs for every agriculture graduate in the province. These jobs are all over the province and many of them are in urban centres (for those people like me, who grew up in big cities).
  3. We’ve got a lot wineries and breweries: Ontario is home to some 180 wineries spread on 17,000 acres which produce 71% of Canadian wines. There is a fascinating history of the Ontario wine industry and how it changed from the 1860’s through prohibition to now. We also have a booming craft beer industry in the province, with hops being a popular new niche crop. There are 180 craft breweries in the province with steady growth since they started actively tracking in 2005.
  4. We grow beautiful things here: Ontario grows half of all the greenhouse flowers grown in Canada, including 80 varieties of fresh cut flowers and 120 varieties of potted plants. Ornamental horticulture is the 6th largest agricultural sector in the province.

    Source: Agriculture More Then Ever
  5. We grow a lot of veggies: There’s 125 different types of vegetables grown in Ontario, and the Holland Marsh (about 50km north of Toronto) can grown enough carrots for every Canadian to get 1.8 kgs of carrots a year in that region alone.

    Source: Farm & Food Care Ontario
  6. It’s apple season and we have a ton of pick-your-own farms: There’s 200 commercial apple growers in Ontario and 16,000 acres of land have apple trees on them.  If you want to go pick your own, I found this huge list of pick your own apple farms here. My family has been making trips to the Willis Family Fruit Farm in Milton every fall for well over 20 years.
  7. We produce the most chicken and turkey in the country: With 226 million chickens and 9 million turkeys in 2016, Ontario is the leading poultry producer. We also are home to the most egg layers in the country, we have the most egg grading facilities and we hatch the most chicks in the country.
  8. We grow a lot of vegetables in greenhouses year round: Ontario winters limit our growing season, so greenhouses allow us to have local produce all year.  We are home to 220 growers with over 2,500 acres of greenhouses employing 1,300 employees.  Tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers are the most popular greenhouse crops.
  9. We’re growing more niche crops to meet the food desires of new Canadians: Ontario is proudly home to immigrants from around the world and many of them grew up with diets different from what we typically grow here.  Some farmers are working to grow crops that are not native to this area, like edamame, okra and tomatillos so that these new Ontarians can have food that is both fresh and local as well as familiar to them.
  10. Ontario produce is recognizable in the grocery store and at farmer’s markets: To their credit, Foodland Ontario has done a lot of marketing and branding of their food and as a result, it’s easy to find Ontario foods in grocery stores across the province, just by looking for the little green logo.

Update: Tomatoes, Podcasts and Other Things

First and foremost, I would like to apologize for accidentally taking the summer off writing.  I didn’t plan to do that, but between working, enjoying the summer with loved ones, a broken computer, and trying to get enough sleep, writing got pushed by the wayside. Trust me though, there are good things in the works.

I thought I’d do a little post to share some of the things I’ve been up to in the time I haven’t been writing.

The tomatoes from my Mother’s Day post were just seedlings when I wrote about them. They were divvied up, a couple for my mom’s garden, a couple for my grandma’s and two in big pots for me to keep on my deck. I am happy to report that I did not accidentally kill mine at any point this summer (so far). I believe my friendly neighbourhood groundhog helped himself to some of my plants, so my mom’s harvest was better than mine (her plants are the photo at the top of the page.  The two different varieties were both delicious, but they tasted slightly different from each other (to me, at least!). It was definitely a cool little project for my mom and I and we have some seeds leftover to try to grow again next year.

I was floored by the positive feedback I got from my post about the Food Evolution movie. I share everything I write on Facebook and Twitter, so that the people closest to me can read it if they’re interested.  Someone shared my post on Twitter and it snowballed quite a bit.  By the time all was said and done, the post had been seen around the world, shared on Farm & Food Care‘s Real Dirt Blog, and a shortened version was shared in the local newspaper. For everyone who read that and took the time to reach out to me and say they liked it, thank you for your kind words.

Finally, my friend Lauren and I were able to host an episode of the Talking Biotech podcast. We interviewed Dr. Doug Sammons, who does research on RNAi technology for Monsanto.  He was super cool to talk to and we had a lot of fun talking to him about what he does.  You can listen to the episode here if you like.

I have 5 half finished posts in the works, so I promise I will be back to posting more regularly shortly!

“When Was The Last Time You Changed Your Mind?”

Last week I had the chance to attend a screening of a new movie about food production, breeding methods and technology at my alma matter, the University of Guelph. It was followed by a panel of a group of scientists and activists who I think I are really cool.

The Food Evolution movie tells the story of how genetically engineered crops are perceived by scientists, activists and the public and the friction between the groups to figure out how to provide enough food for a growing world population.  Narrated by Neil deGrasse Tyson, it compares the debate of genetically engineered crop use in Hawaii with the debate in Africa (Kenya and Uganda specifically).

Since I have not yet talked about genetically engineered (GE) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), here is a quick crash course.

Genetically engineered (GE) organisms, also often referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are things that have had a gene from either a different species or a synthetically produced gene added to their DNA to allow the organism to have a trait it would not be able to get through traditional breeding methods or to have a trait appear faster than it would be able to through selective breeding.

This means that organisms can be improved to have more disease resistance, to have more nutrients that humans need in their diets, to have resistance to herbicides that can kill weeds, to maintain genetic diversity, to improve the hardiness of crops in the face of climate change, to improve animal welfare, and to more effectively produce livestock for human consumption.

Some genetically engineered products are already available – corn, soybeans, and cotton all have genetically engineered varieties that are widely used, as well as sugar beets, alfalfa, papaya, squash, canola, and potatoes.  There are also apples, salmon and eggplant (brinjal) that are starting to come to the market now.

Some consumers and activists are ardently opposed to the use and sale of genetically engineered products for a variety of reasons, including playing God, concerns about effects on the environment, food safety and human health concerns. However, there is no scientific evidence of these concerns being actual problems across thousands of scientific studies and there is a consensus among scientists that GE products are safe. The problems lie in the fact that the people opposed to GE crops are often so passionately opposed to them that they are able to sway politicians into banning these crop and animal varieties and that keeps these products out of the hands of the people who would benefit most from them.

Two resources that I like to point people to when they have more questions about GE technology are the Genetic Literacy Project and GMO Answers. For those of you wondering why I keep using the term GE instead of GMO, Dr. Kevin Folta recently wrote a piece about how use of language matters in the technology debate, although it is generally accepted that the two are interchangeable (you may remember Kevin from my first post as someone who helped me get this blog off the ground).

Food Evolution explains the fear associated with GE products but then goes through the scientific process and allows the research to be explained by renowned scientists.  It features skeptics, farmers, politicians and researchers from both America and Africa. It particularly focuses on the Rainbow Papaya in Hawaii and bacterial wilt-resistant bananas for Africa, two crops that are able to resist diseases which are crippling to them when the diseases occur. These crops are another tool farmers can use to help produce a viable crop for consumers and they bring in enough money when sold to allow the farmers producing them to make a living.

The movie screening was followed by a panel with Dr. Kevin Folta, Dr. Allison van Eenannaam, Mark Lynas, Adam Kighoma Malima, Robert Wager and Dr. CS Prakash.  Prior to the movie screening, the audience was polled to see where they stood on genetically engineered products. 90% of the audience was in favour of the use of GE crops and the rest were opposed or unsure. Personally, I found it interesting how the first 90 minutes of the panel was made up of questions from people who were very opposed to GE technology, even though the made up the minority of the audience.  Some had thoughtful, valid concerns, about things like how a neighbour growing GE crops would affect their organic crops, while others had questions that seemed intent on out-foxing the panel and trying to force them into saying something they didn’t mean (the panel handled it much more gracefully than I would have…).  By the end of the night though, the tone of the questions changed, and the pro-GE part of the audience started asking more questions, wanting to know how we in the audience could support science, science communication, and bringing the technology into the hands of the people who need it.

I took a lot of notes over the course of the movie and the panel, and true to form, I cannot read a damn word I wrote. As such, some of the more refined points I wanted to bring up are squiggles that I can’t unravel.  The title of this piece is a quote I can read though, and I thought it was powerful because everyone who holds an opinion on GE crops (or any other debatable subject) often feels very strongly about the matter. Be it science, politics, religion, it is often hard to change your mind and even harder to admit that you have. That seems to be part of the problem with people in the GE debate, and that is part of what makes panel-speaker Mark Lynas so credible in the GE debate because he was so opposed to the technology for so long.

The other quote that stuck with me (and that I can read!), was one from Dr. Allison van Eenannaam in the panel, where she asked:

“How do we make people evaluate the risks based on what is more likely to be bad? The risks people worry about are the ones they don’t have control over, like the way people are more afraid of flying than they are of driving, even though driving is more dangerous.”

I find this poignant because at this point in time there are quite literally thousands of studies saying that GE crops are safe (including this meta-analysis of 1783 studies from a 10 year period), but because so many people are so far removed from the food system and are really trusting the people growing, processing, auditing and regulating their food to keep it safe, the general public can be wary of GE foods.

I think movies like this help. I think hearing from a panel of experts like I did helps. I think people who support the technology sharing information about it with people who don’t know or are indifferent helps.

Unfortunately, the screening last week was the only Canadian one scheduled so far and no US, Canadian or European broadcasters have picked up the movie to air it.  I’m hoping that Netflix will pick it up because then it will likely be accidentally stumbled upon by a person who would not necessarily watch the movie if it was shown on a TV station.

If you get the chance, please go see this movie, it is so worth it.

Growing Up Beside the Tomatoes in My Mother’s Garden

It’s Mother’s Day around here, and I promise you, this post is relevant to agriculture, you just have to wait for me to get to the point here.

Since the majority of the people reading this are my family and friends, than chances are you know or know of my mom.  She is the head cheerleader for this blog, single-handedly encouraging quite a few family members to become subscribers and to read what I write, as well as my deadline manager delicately reminding me that I have not kept up with my promise of biweekly posts (Sorry about that, everyone).

She also loves to garden. She has hand-drawn maps of the front and backyard, detailing where all the different plants are, what will replace the tulips when they finish for the spring, where there is space to move things around when they are ready to be transplanted.  We have special lights in the basement so that she can start seeds and then transfer the seedlings into the garden when they are big and strong enough.  A recent bylaw change means that no trees, bushes or shrubs can be within a certain distance of fire hydrants and since we have one on our front lawn, my mom diligently mapped out where the two little bushes were going to move to be away from the hydrant.  Dandelions that have the audacity to take root in our lawn will experience plant warfare as my mom rips them out of the grass. I am convinced that a few plants have grown out of my mom’s sheer stubborn will.

As someone who likes food, my favourite part of her garden is the vegetable garden. In there, you’ll find a rotating assortment of vegetables – tomatoes, arugula lettuce, Swiss chard, cucumbers, kale, snow peas, carrots, zucchini, garlic, and a medley of herbs and spices. We regularly joke about how our family lives on a “10-meter-diet” in the summer, with someone routinely popping out to the backyard before dinner with garden shears and a bowl to harvest some ingredients.

Sometimes the vegetable garden has been too much of a good thing. There was one summer my mom’s zucchini plants were too successful and we were having zucchini for every single meal for weeks straight (zucchini muffins, zucchini quiche, zucchini in our pasta sauces, zucchini lasagna, every possible zucchini side dish known to man).  Zucchini is not my favourite vegetable to begin with and after that, my sister and I managed to convince my mom to take a break with the zucchini for a year or two.

The snow peas were always my favourite and as a kid, I would occasionally go for a snack and eat them straight off the vine, standing barefoot in the dirt.  My sister did not like snow peas at all, so instead of turning her nose up at them when they were served, she got creative and trained our dog to go into the garden and eat the snow peas off the vine. When my mom saw the dog do this, she would end up running out to the back yard, yelling at him to get out of the garden.

Here’s our family dog, Yoda, with his face in the snow peas, just the way my sister trained him

The tomatoes in the garden are my mom’s favourite. She will diligently stake up the tomatoes as they grow and when the summer starts to end, she will watch the weather to pull the last few green tomatoes off the vines before the first frost, allowing them to ripen in the dark in the basement. She absolutely loves them and asserts that no store-bought tomato ever tastes as good as the one straight from a garden.

She’s right.

As a crop, tomatoes can be challenging because they can bruise and get damaged easily during transport from farm to store to table.  Crop breeders have focused on breeding tomatoes that are hardier for transport and this includes harvesting tomatoes while they are still green. Breeding and growing that way means that some of the great tomato flavour has been lost in the tomatoes at a grocery store.  Heirloom tomatoes are very popular these days with farmers markets and backyard gardens because they have a better flavour but they will often go soft and bruise faster than a grocery store tomato will.

At the University of Florida, Dr. Harry Klee and his research team are working to try to resolve this problem, by breeding for tomatoes that are both hardy for commercial use as well as flavourful like an heirloom variety.  They currently have two varieties of tomatoes that, while not as high-yielding as commercial lines, are hardier than heirloom varieties and are well suited for a backyard gardener.  The genetic premise behind this is called hybrid vigor and it means that when two parent organisms have very strong but different traits, their offspring will have the best qualities of both parents, making the offspring a better version than the parents were.

For a donation to the lab, the Klee research team will send you a package of both types of seeds for you to plant and then they ask that you share how your small crop of tomatoes turned out.

I made a donation to their research program and got seeds for my mom as a Mother’s Day present. She started the seeds under her special plant lights in the basement, has been sending me regular updates on them and she has put one of each variety in a pot for me to take to my house so I can slowly accidentally kill them over the course of the summer (I inherited a lot of great traits from my mom, her green thumb was not one of them).

Here’s what they look like so far – there’s one variety in the green pots and the other in the white pots

I think this is a really really cool project and I’ve been casually following it for years.  If you’d like more information or to donate to the project to get your own seeds, you should check out the lab’s website, the Facebook page for the Garden Gem Tomatoes, and this episode of the Talking Biotech podcast with Dr. Klee. This project is also mentioned in a really interesting book called “The Dorito Effect” by Mark Schatzker, which you can get from most independent and chain bookstores (like Canadian retailer, Indigo, here).

Happy Mother’s Day to everyone celebrating!

Robotic Farming

Technology. With a device that fits in my pocket, I can access information from around the world in a few quick seconds. I instead choose to use that technology to watch this parrot video, repeatedly, giggling every time.

Like all other aspects of human life, technology has infiltrated farming too and it is really cool (as least, I think it is).  From robotic milking parlours for cows, automated feeders for pigs, hydroponics for vegetables or combines accurate down to the half inch for harvesting corn and soy, technology, robotics and automation are now a major part of how many Canadian farmers grow our food.

Despite the fact that 2.1 million Canadians work in food and agriculture, only 2% of Canadians are actually farmers (I got these numbers from Farm and Food Care’s latest issue of “The Real Dirt on Farming“.  It is a great resource and I strongly recommend you skim through it if you’ve got some time!).  This means that fewer people need to raise and harvest more food, and the best way to do that is to rely on technologies that can help us meet those demands.

For many livestock farmers, automation comes in the form of barn controls.  Chickens, turkeys and pigs are happiest when their barn temperature and humidity is kept within a certain range, so farmers will have their ventilation systems programmed to acceptable ranges (a comfortable 22°-25°C for laying hens usually, higher for young pigs and chicks and lower for meat chickens and turkeys).  If the sensors in the barn sense that the temperature is out of the acceptable range the barn alarm, which is usually connected to a farmer’s cell phone, will go off and the farmer will either be able to correct the settings from their phone or go to the barn to adjust it manually.

The average Canadian egg farm has nearly 21,000 hens  and most of those birds will be laying an egg per day.  That’s a lot of eggs to collect by hand, so many farmers will have egg conveyor belts to bring the eggs to one end of the barn, and then an egg packer machine to put the eggs onto trays to be sent to market.  This video from How It’s Made shows how eggs are collected on a farm using robotics and how eggs are graded to go to market in a grading facility. The video is a little blunt and mentions that at the end of the flock cycle, the hens are sent to slaughter.  Increasingly, some farmers are opting to humanely euthanize all of their birds on their farms instead of sending them to market, as the birds have very little meat and it is not high quality, so the payment is not always worth the time, labour and stress to the birds required to get them to market.

Dairy farms are also seeing a lot more automation, and I think they have the coolest robots.  Dairy cows need to be milked 2-3 times per day and the average Holstein cow (the black and white ones, for you city folks) can produce around 34L per day. Obviously, this takes a while, so having robots that can do the milking at 4am instead of humans is wonderful. Cows will walk into the milking machine, a robotic arm will clean their teats and then a laser will guide the milker onto their teat.  Cows will often wear radio tags on collars, in their ears or on theirs legs that will let a farmer know how much time they are spending eating, lying down, milking, sleeping, and if anything is out of the ordinary, a farmer will have all that information and can determine if there is something wrong with the cow or the feed.  Bloomberg did this great video of a Manitoba dairy farm that had converted entirely to a robotic system and now didn’t have to worry about staffing shortages while also having their cows be more productive. This farm is a lot bigger than the average sized Canadian dairy farm, but it is a great example of robotics in action.

Lastly, robotic harvesters are becoming very competitive with using humans for harvesting. In both Canada and the US, a lot of crops, particularly fruits and vegetables, rely on temporary foreign workers coming in from Mexico and other parts of Central America to collect fruits and veggies for sales. This is a huge socio-economic situation that I don’t feel confident enough to wade into, but gist of it is that the more robotics involved in harvesting food, the fewer migrants needed to be brought in for that (which has benefits and flaws in and of itself). Searching “Robotic Crop Harvester” on Youtube takes you down a rabbit hole of hundreds of videos gathering all sorts of different crops.  Some of my favourites from that search are this one for carrots, this cherry harvesting video (almonds are harvested the exact same way), lettuce harvesting in California and this prototype for a strawberry harvester.

Not every farmer has the capital to invest in these kinds of technologies, and that’s ok.  As they become more popular, the cost of the machinery will likely continue to decrease and newer innovations will likely make these robotics even more efficient.  With fewer people wanting to work on farms, I think automation and robotics is going to be a huge factor in feeding the planet going forward.


I know the cover photo at the top of this post is not quite a state-of-the-art tractor, but it is incredibly hard to find a free photo of any robotic farming equipment, so I had to settle for a very pretty picture instead.

Biosecurity: Why I Can Never Own a Parrot

My aunt and uncle got a parrot as a wedding present (the full story from my aunt is at the bottom of the post). When I was a kid, I thought that was probably the best possible type of wedding present and I always wanted someone to give me a parrot when I got married. I really like parrots in general, I worked in an exotic animal zoo for a summer and there was a parrot there who took a real shine to me, yelling “HELLOOOOO” at me when I came in in the morning, and serenading me with his renditions of “Old MacDonald” throughout the day (it was mostly just him yelling the “E-I-E-I-O” part over and over again).

The problem is that I now work with farm animals, chickens specifically, and for the health and safety of the birds I work with, I’m not allowed to own parrots.

Healthy animals are the most successful.  Just the same way someone with the flu won’t get out of bed and go to work, a sick animal will grow slower, make less milk or lay fewer eggs. On top of the production aspects, most farmers are just good people who don’t want the animals they care for to be unwell. Instead of treating animals when they are sick, it is better to prevent them from getting sick in the first place.

Biosecurity is the process of taking steps to prevent animals from catching diseases which could harm them, the humans who care for them or the food supply. This can be as simple as changing your clothes between different farms or can be as complicated as having a shower ever time you enter or exit a barn and having scheduled days off between different farms. A lot of these preventative measures can be likened to the way nurses and doctors will disinfect tools and scrub up before a surgery, to prevent a patient from getting an infection.

There’s a lot of different ways a biosecurity program can be implemented and just about every farm I know of has some sort of plan in place.

With poultry and pigs, farmers will often use “all-in/all-out” systems, where all the animals are grouped together by age and will arrive into a barn at the same time (either be hatched at the same time in the case of chickens and turkeys or be weaned from their mothers at the same time in the case of pigs). This has quite a few benefits – all of the animals are at the same life stage, so they can all be cared for the same way but also with no new animals coming in, there is a dramatically decreased risk of a new animal arriving and bringing an illness with it.

Humans can also be a vector that brings in diseases, not necessarily with the people themselves having an illness, but by having small amounts of pathogens on their bodies, clothes, equipment or vehicles that can affect the animals. The treads on boots can pick up mud and manure and then if those boots are worn through a different barn, there is a chance that they can spread diseases to the animals in the different barn. Most farms as a result have barn shoes that are exclusively worn in the barn, as well as a boot dip – a pan of water mixed with some sort of sanitizing agent that you must step into with both feet before you go any further into the barn.

Vehicles like feed trucks or livestock hauling trucks can be another carrier of disease pathogens because they go around to multiple farms.  Every time a livestock truck is used, it is cleaned and then disinfected thoroughly before it is used again.  When a vehicle arrives at a farm, there is usually a sprayer with a sanitizing agent in it at the foot of the driveway that is used to spray off the wheels, wheel wells and undercarriage of the vehicle before it comes any closer to the barn.

Even the design of a barn takes into account biosecurity.  Animal feed will come from one end of the barn, while manure will be cleaned and removed through the back of the barn. This decreases the chance of the food for the animals being contaminated with any bacteria, fungus or viruses that may be waiting in the manure.

Now in North America, it is almost spring time (finally!) and with that, migratory birds are starting to come back up to Canada and the US.  These birds will be bringing new strains of illnesses like avian influenza (AI) with them and there’s a risk that domestic poultry around here could get sick from it. Here in Ontario, there was a nasty AI outbreak in the summer of 2015.  The Canadian Food Inspection Agency website has a great timeline of events if you want to look at all the details, but the gist of it is as follows:

In early April 2015, a flock of turkeys was found with AI and within a week that farm and the neighbouring farm had been put under quarantine and the affected farm had all the birds euthanized. An Avian Influenza Control Zone was set up around the farm, meaning that no hatching eggs, day old chicks, or young birds (poults) were allowed within that 10 km radius. This was particularly tricky because part of the 401 (a major cross-province highway that stretches from the Quebec boarder to the US boarder with Detroit) fell inside the quarantine zone. As a result, livestock trucks with birds heading from one end of the province to the other would have had to get off the 401 and go south of the highway until they were past the quarantine zone. By mid April, a second farm, this time a meat chicken farm, had been found to have AI as well. While AI is not passed through properly cooked food and is not often caught by people working with sick birds, it can be devastating to a flock of birds, quickly making almost all of them sick and die.  When the second positive farm was discovered, some of Canada’s international trade partners had to be notified of the outbreak and all poultry producers were encouraged to increase their biosecurity programs. Fortunately, once the affected barns had been emptied and cleaned out and a waiting period of 21 days with no new cases appearing, the quarantine zones around the affected farms were lifted and normal travelling routes were resumed. Because AI is so contagious and devastating, as soon as an outbreak is found in Canada, farmers are notified so that they can help protect their flocks.

For my job, I’m not allowed to own parrots or other livestock because my employer does not want me to carry a pathogen from those animals to the animals I work with.  With parrots, the most commonly caught illness is Psittacosis or Parrot Fever. My aunt and uncle actually caught Parrot Fever from the parrots they got as a wedding present.  I leave you with the email my from aunt, Carol, explaining the whole thing:

“Richard and I received as a wedding present in August 1980, a Yellow Fronted Amazon Parrot from our Best Man.  It was an awesome and unique gift that was going to be with us for likely 50 years or more.  His name was ‘Herbie’ and he was very friendly.  So we started our married life in married student residence at the University of Waterloo (I was in my last year, and Richard was talking courses towards his Chartered Accountant designation) with Herbie.  His wings were clipped, so he would walk around the apartment, like a cat or dog, and play with his toys.  Unfortunately, within the first couple of month of his life he became ill.  We had no money, poor starving students, but found a kind vet who said that he had eaten something that was destroying his liver and he would not live past the end of the week.  Because the cost of ‘Herbie’ was huge, our friend had paid for a life insurance policy on him, and we quite quickly picked up a second parrot, same breed from the same pet store and called him Gomer.  This was around the end of October, beginning of November.

In mid December, Richard and I couldn’t figure out why we seemed to need to sleep so much, we would get a good 8 hours of sleep a night, but want to have a nap around 10 am, and again in the afternoon, and into bed at 7 pm.  Then we started to notice that we had no energy, taking the stairs to our third floor apartment was a real chore, and we seemed to need more sleep and have less and less appetite.  We would talk to Mom once a week, and was telling her that neither of us were feeling very good and she mentioned that over the weekly conversations we were complaining about our symptoms that were getting worse, she recommended we go to the hospital.

So Saturday morning, maybe 10 days before Christmas (and right into December exams) we went to the Kitchener Waterloo Hospital.  They separated us and starting asking the same questions, had we been out of the country, were we drug users, had we eaten in a strange restaurant etc., etc.  They took blood tests, did small stress tests and were somewhat baffled.  Then Richard thought to mention Gomer.  The doctor in emergency had some experience with strange diseases and grabbed a book to start looking up exotic indicators, he found it almost immediately, we fit all the criteria for Parrot Fever (Psittacosis).

He put Richard and I on high doses of Tetracycline, and he contacted Public Health about our diagnosis.  We were sent home and told to quarantine ourselves in our apartment, no visitors were aloud and Public Health would come by to assess.  Through Public Health, Gomer was also put on Tetracycline, but unfortunately, because of either the high doses of the antibiotic, or because Gomer had suffered from a high fever without us knowing, his personality changed, he was no longer friendly, he preferred to be on his own, Richard could work with him, but he wasn’t keen to be with anyone else, so he spent more time in his cage than we liked.  For us personally, we spent a week or so relying on friends and family to place food at our door, Richard missed work, I missed my December exams (had to write them in January) and we were advised that if we got pregnant in the next 2 -3 years, we should abort the pregnancy (so we waited 5 years to have our first child).

Public Health checked on us for a few months, but had immediately shut down the pet store as they had found that they were bringing in these parrots, and not following the Canadian quarantine policies or procedures.

As a side note, we had Gomer for about 8 years, he really didn’t ever become any friendlier, and through a family member, we found him a home with other parrots, they felt he was in really good health given how he started his life, so we gave him to a new owner for a better ‘parrot’ life and in return, we got the piano that is still in our living room.”